American Institute of Biological Sciences logo is a resource of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.


Shaye Wolf, PhD, is a biologist for the Climate Law Institute of the Center for Biological Diversity, which works

more on author

Climate Change Threatens Penguins

Shaye Wolf

An Original Article

»en español


Climate change is affecting most penguins in different ways. Global warming:

  • jeopardizes the safety of penguin breeding areas
  • harms their food supply
  • causes increased chick and adult mortality

September 2009

Penguins—waddling wonders of the Southern Hemisphere


Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) on Hannah Point, Livingston Island, Antarctic Peninsula, sports colorful crests. Photo: Jerzy Strzeleck

Penguins are superb swimmers and divers.

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are flightless seabirds found almost entirely in the Southern Hemisphere. Although their wings have become useless for flight, they have become superbly adapted to swimming and diving. For example, Gentoo penguins can swim up to 35 km per hour— compared with 9 km per hour for the fastest Olympic swimmer. Emperor penguins can dive to depths of more than 520 m to find food—deeper than any other bird. Penguins must return to land or sea ice to rear their young, however, and they are renowned for their feats of endurance as parents. The Emperor penguin raises its chick on top of the frozen Antarctic Ocean amid winter temperatures as low as -60°C and winds of 195 km per hour. For two months, the male fasts while taking on the sole duty of incubating the egg, which he must balance on top of his feet to protect it from the ice below.

Penguins are not just found in Antarctica

Although penguins are commonly associated with Antarctica, penguins are found in a variety of habitats in the Southern Hemisphere. Eighteen different penguin species inhabit areas from Antarctica to the Equator. They can be divided into three groups:

Penguins can be divided into three groups.
  • Four penguin species breed in Antarctica and/or the Antarctic islands: the Emperor, Adélie, Chinstrap, and Gentoo penguin.
  • Most penguin species breed on islands in the sub-Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean (a.k.a. Antarctic Ocean), the South Atlantic Ocean, the South Pacific Ocean, and the Southern Indian Ocean: the King, Southern Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, Macaroni, and Royal penguin. Several penguin species are found only on the coastlines and islands of Australia and/or New Zealand: the Little Blue, Snares Crested, Erect Crested, Fiordland Crested, and Yellow-eyed penguin.
  • The most northerly penguins breed along the more temperate coasts of South America and Africa: the Humboldt, Magellanic, Galápagos, and African penguin.
Many penguins are threatened species.

Penguins are a highly threatened group. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the world authority on the status of threatened species:

  • 11 of 18 penguin species are declining and considered an extinction risk
  • Two species are considered stable.
  • The population status of the remaining five is unknown.

Studies have linked climate change to past, ongoing, and projected population declines of many penguin species. Because penguins live in different ocean habitats of the Southern Hemisphere, climate change affects penguins in these regions in different ways.

How is climate change affecting Antarctic penguins?

The Antarctic Peninsula is warming at a fast pace.

The Antarctic continent is warming as a whole,1 but the Antarctic Peninsula—the northernmost region that juts out towards South America—is warming faster than any other place in the Southern Hemisphere.2 Because of this rapid warming, sea ice along the western Antarctic Peninsula is shrinking in size, and the sea-ice season is shorter.2 The loss of sea ice is harming Emperor penguin chicks and adults. Emperor penguins rear their chicks on land-locked sea ice. When sea ice breaks up before their chicks have matured and grown their waterproof feathers, chicks that are swept into the ocean are likely to die. For adults, the loss of sea ice can lead to lower food availability, which can result in increased mortality.


The loss of sea ice is linked to Emperor penguin population declines at the warmer northern regions of Antarctica:

Emperor colonies are declining.
  • The Emperor colony at Terre Adélie in East Antarctica—featured in the Academy Award-winning French documentary, March of the Penguins3—plummeted by more than 50% in the late 1970s during a warm period with little sea ice cover, when adults died en masse.4 Because the sea ice continues to disintegrate, and the prolonged blizzards cause ongoing chick mortality,4 the colony has yet to recover.
  • On the fast-warming Antarctic Peninsula, another Emperor colony has declined from 250 pairs to 10 pairs since 1960, due to the rapid loss of the sea ice.5
Adélie populations are disappearing rapidly.

Another Antarctic penguin that is being affected by global climate change is the Adélie penguin. Unlike the Emperor penguin, the Adélie does not raise its chicks on sea ice. Instead, it builds a nest out of pebbles on the sparse areas of the Antarctic shoreline that are free of ice and snow.6 On the western Antarctic Peninsula, warmer temperatures allow the air to hold more moisture, and this leads to more snowfall in the region.7 Adélie penguin populations are disappearing rapidly because they cannot find snow-free ground for nesting.8 The loss of winter sea ice in this region is also impacting the Adélie’s food supply negatively.9 As sea ice declines, the more ice-intolerant Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins are expanding southward into Adélie breeding areas in the Antarctic Peninsula, replacing Adélie penguins.10


Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) feeding young. Photo: Jerzy Strzeleck

Both Emperor and Adélie penguins face a bleak future from global climate change. According to a study by Antarctic researchers, a temperature increase of 1.3°C will jeopardize 40% of the world’s Emperor penguins and 70% of the world’s Adélie penguins—largely because of diminishing sea ice.5 (At present rates, the world will exceed 1.3°C of warming before mid-century.11) Penguin scientists also predict that sea-ice loss due to global climate change will push the Emperor population chronicled in March of the Penguins to the brink of extinction within this century.12

How is climate change affecting sub-Antarctic penguins?

There is less krill to eat, a major food source.

For the penguin species that live in the Southern Ocean, which encircles Antarctica, global climate change is also having significant impacts. In the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, ocean warming and the melting of sea-ice are linked to the decline of the penguins’ major food supply—Antarctic krill. Krill in this region have declined by as much as 80% since the 1970s.13 Since krill graze on algae that grow on the bottom of the sea ice, the loss of ice leads to the loss of krill. Researchers project that a 1°C rise in sea surface temperature in this region could result in a further 95% reduction of krill.14 This collapse in the food supply would be disastrous for the penguins like the Macaroni, which has already suffered a 50% population decline at its main breeding site in this region—the South Georgia Island—between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s.15

Penguins in New Zealand are suffering, too.

There is also evidence that ocean warming has led to penguin population declines in other regions of the sub-Antarctic by reducing their food supply.

  • On Marion Island in the southern Indian Ocean, a 60% decline in Southern Rockhopper population,16 and a 50% decline in the Macaroni population have been attributed to ocean warming17.
  • On the sub-Antarctic islands of New Zealand, Southern Rockhopper penguin populations plummeted by 50–94% during a period of warmer ocean temperatures.18
  • Likewise, researchers studying King penguins in the southern Indian Ocean found that warm-water events negatively impact adult survival and breeding success, and they warn that King penguins are at extinction risk under future warming scenarios.19

How is climate change affecting temperate penguins?

Some penguins live in special ecosystems along the Equator.

It may seem odd to think of penguins living along the Equator at the Galápagos Islands or on the desert coasts of Africa and South America, but penguins are able to inhabit places where upwelling brings cold, nutrient-rich ocean water to the surface, which creates a bountiful food supply. The penguins living in these upwelling ecosystems periodically face extreme food shortages when El Niño events usher in warm water and prevent cold water from reaching the surface. Leading climate scientists believe that global climate change will lead to stronger El Niño events in the future.20 Two particularly strong El Niño events that occurred in recent decades provide a window into how penguins in temperate regions are likely to be harmed by global climate change.


Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) at Elizabeth Bay on the island of Isabela, Galápagos. Photo: putneymark, Flickr

For example, the Galápagos penguin has proven to be extremely vulnerable to starvation during El Niño events. Adults are forced to abandon their eggs and chicks to search for food, leaving their chicks to starve.20 Following the powerful El Niño events of 1982–1983 and 1997–1998, the Galápagos penguin population plummeted by 77% and 65%, respectively,21 leaving less than 2,000 penguins today— the world’s smallest penguin population.

Emerging threats

In addition to global climate change effects harming penguins, two emerging threats resulting from the world’s greenhouse gas pollution are gaining attention:

  • sea level rise; and
  • ocean acidification.

Rising sea levels threaten to drown important coastal nesting sites for penguins—especially in places where natural barriers like cliffs, or human barriers like roads and developments, prevent penguins from retreating inland.

Acidification decreases penguins’ food supply.

Our greenhouse gas emissions are also causing the oceans to become acidic, which threatens the entire ocean food web from plankton to penguins. The oceans absorb a large portion of the carbon dioxide produced by our industrial society. As ocean waters have absorbed this excess carbon dioxide, the acidity of the ocean has increased by 30% and carbonate ions have become less available.22,23 Carbonate ions are used by calcifying creatures such as plankton, corals, and clams to build their shells. As ocean acidification reduces carbonate ion availability, these creatures will become increasingly unable to build new shells and existing shells will begin to dissolve,24,25 which leaves these animals with no way to survive, and therefore, affects the penguins’ food supply.

The Southern Ocean food web is nearing disaster.

Although all oceans are affected by acidification, the Southern Ocean, and the upwelling systems where penguins live, will be among the first regions to be impacted. For example, at current rates of greenhouse gas emissions, the pteropod—a planktonic snail which forms a key part of the food web in the Southern Ocean—may be unable to survive as early as 2030.26 The loss of the pteropod will have profound impacts on the Southern Ocean food web, and the penguins that depend on it.

How can we protect penguins from further decline?

Action is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Rapidly reducing global greenhouse gas emissions is the single most important action needed to protect penguins from global climate change. If we continue on our current course, global temperatures will rise by an average of 2.8–4°C in this century (4 to 6 times more than during the previous century)11, ocean waters will become corrosive from the depths to the surface in many regions,27 and Antarctic sea ice will disappear at accelerating rates.28 We risk not only losing penguins but also destroying the web of life. Leading climate scientists have concluded that the atmospheric carbon dioxide level must be reduced from its current level of 385 parts per million (ppm) to less than 350 ppm to prevent dangerous climate change, which includes massive species extinction and catastrophic sea level rise.29

Today, the biggest threat to penguins is industrial fishing.

Even with rapid reductions in greenhouse gas pollution, greenhouse gases that have been emitted already ensure we are still committed to decades of continued warming and centuries of continued sea-level rise.29,30 It is critical, therefore, to reduce other threats to penguins to increase their ability to survive the added pressures from this warming. The biggest of these threats is industrial fishing. Large-scale commercial fisheries deplete the penguin’s food sources, as well as entangle and drown penguins in longlines and other fishing gear. Other current threats to penguins include:

  • oil spills
  • marine pollution
  • introduced non-native predators at penguin breeding sites
  • diseases
  • habitat destruction
  • human disturbance
  • direct harvest of eggs and birds

One important tool for protecting penguins globally is the U.S. Endangered Species Act.31 This Act is the world’s strongest biodiversity protection law that provides important safeguards for animals and plants threatened with extinction. Currently, one penguin species is listed under the Act, and seven have been proposed for protection in response to a scientific petition from the Center for Biological Diversity. The Endangered Species Act listing process helps species like penguins by:

  • drawing attention to their plight
  • educating the public about the threats they face, and
  • making additional funds and resources available for their study and management
Regulatory protection for penguins is an important step.

Once penguins are listed, the Act provides important regulatory protections to penguins from both climate and non-climate threats. For example, under the law, U.S. federal agencies approving projects that emit significant levels of greenhouse gas emissions would be required to analyze the impacts of those emissions on listed penguins, as well as adopt solutions to reduce emissions so that they do not jeopardize penguins. Additionally, U.S. federal agencies approving high seas fishing permits would need to analyze and reduce the impacts of those fishing activities to protect listed penguins. The Endangered Species Act, therefore, provides an important tool for both addressing the root causes of climate change, as well as protecting penguin populations to increase their resilience to climate change.

Shaye Wolf, PhD, is a biologist for the Climate Law Institute of the Center for Biological Diversity, which works through science, law, and policy to secure a future for all species hovering on the brink of extinction. Her work has focused on climate change impacts to species and ecosystems, and her research has examined the effects of current and projected ocean climate change on seabird populations. Through her work with the Center, she focuses on protecting species like penguins, Arctic ice seals, and the American pika that are imperiled by climate change.

Climate Change Threatens Penguins

ActionBioscience Articles

Climate change affects species and environments across the globe, and we have been tracking the consequences on

BioScience Articles

Endangered Species Act

Read the original Endangered Species act, as well as how government agencies and citizens are taking action.

Interactive penguin map

Click on the map to learn about a penguin species.

Diversity of penguins

Learn more about how penguins are threatened by climate change and how the Center for Biological Diversity is working to protect them under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

Penguins on video

Learn more from penguin researchers and view webcams and webisodes of these creatures. The last two links are PBS video segments from its documentary about penguins, free to view.

Antarctic Connection

Learn about the life of penguins around the world.

SeaWorld Penguins

Lots of short, simple information, images, and a list of books for young readers.

Take action to help penguins

Sign the petition today to the U.S. government, asking for prompt consideration to protect penguins.

Adopt a Penguin

Help penguins and other wildlife by adopting a penguin today at the Wildlife Adoption Center or take action at the Wildlife Action Center.

  1. Steig, E. J., D. P. Schneider, S. D. Rutherford, M. E. Mann, J. Comiso, and D. Shindell. 2009. Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature 457:459–463.
  2. Stammerjohn, S., D. G. Martinson, R. C. Smith, X. Yuan, and D. Rind. 2008. Trends in Antarctic annual sea ice retreat and advance and their relation to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode variability. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:C03S90, doi:10.1029/2007JC004269.
  3. March of the Penguins. 2005. DVD. Des Moines, IA: National Geographic.
  4. Barbraud, C., and H. Weimerskirch. 2001. Emperor penguins and climate change. Nature 411: 183–186.
  5. Ainley, D., J. Russell, and S. Jenouvrier. 2008. The fate of Antarctic penguins when Earth’s trophospheric temperature reaches 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Available at (accessed August 1, 2009).
  6. Ainley, D. G. 2002. The Adelie Penguin: Bellwether of Climate Change. New York: Columbia University Press.
  7. Boersma, P. D. 2008. Penguins as marine sentinels. Bioscience 58: 598–607.
  8. Montaigne, F. 2004. Signs from Earth: no room to run. National Geographic magazine. (accessed August 1, 2009).
  9. Fraser, W. R., and E. E. Hofmann. 2003. A predator’s perspective on causal links between climate change, physical forcing and ecosystem response. Marine Ecology Progress Series 265: 1–15.
  10. Forcada, J., and P. N. Trathan. 2009. Penguin responses to climate change in the Southern Ocean. Global Change Biology 15: 1618–1630. 11.Meehl, G. A., et al. 2007. 2007: Global Climate Projections. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and G. H. Miller, (eds). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  11. Jenouvrier, S., H. Caswell, C. Barbraud, M. Holland, J. Stroeve, and H. Weimerskirch. 2009. Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, doi:/10.1073/pnas.0806638106.
  12. Atkinson A, V. Siegel, E. Pakhomov, and P. Rothery. 2004. Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432: 100–103.
  13. Murphy, E. J., P. N. Trathan, J. L. Watkins, K. Reid, M. P. Meredith, J. Forcada, S. E. Thorpe, N. M. Johnston, and P. Rothery. 2007. Climatically driven fluctuations in Southern Ocean ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 274: 3057–3067.
  14. BirdLife International. 2009. Species factsheet: Eudyptes chrysolophus. Available at (accessed August 1, 2009).
  15. Crawford, R. J. M., J. Cooper, B. M. Dyer, M. D. Greyling, N. T. W. Klages, D. C. Nel, J. L. Nel, S. L. Petersen, and A. C. Wolfaardt. 2003. Decrease in Numbers of the Eastern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome filholi at Marion Island, 1994/95–2002/03. African Journal of Marine Science 25: 487–498.
  16. Crawford, R.J.M., J. Cooper, and B.M. Dyer. 2003. Population of the Macaroni Penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus at Marion Island, 1994/95-2002/03, with observations on breeding and diet. African Journal of Marine Science 25: 475–486.
  17. Cunningham, D. M. and P. J. Moors. 1994. The decline of Rockhopper Penguins Eudyptes chrysocome at Campbell Island, Southern Ocean, and the influence of rising sea temperatures. Emu 94: 27–36.
  18. LeBohec, J. M. Durant, M. Gauthier-Clerc, N. C. Stenseth, Y. Park, R. Pradell, D. Grémellit, J. Gendner, and Y. Le Maho. 2008. King penguin threatened by Southern Ocean warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105: 2493–2497.
  19. Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade. 2006. Global temperature change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103:14288–14293.
  20. Vargas, F. N., S. Harrison, S. Rea, and D. W. Macdonald. 2006. Biological effects of El Niño on the Galápagos penguin. Biological Conservation 127: 107–114.
  21. Caldeira, K., and M .E. Wicket. 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425: 365.
  22. Feely, R. A., C. L. Sabine, K. Lee, W. Berelson, J. Kleypas, V. J. Fabry, and F. J. Millero. 2004. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305: 362–366.
  23. Orr, J. C., et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437: 681–686.
  24. Fabry, V. J., B. A. Seibel, R. A. Feely, and J. C. Orr. 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. ICES Journal of Marine Sciences 65: 414–432.
  25. McNeil, B. I., and R. J. Matear. 2008. Southern Ocean acidification: A tipping point at 450-ppm atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105: 18860–18864.
  26. Cao, L., and K. Caldeira. 2008. Atmospheric CO2 stabilization and ocean acidification. Geophysical Research Letters 35: L19609, doi:10.1029/2008GL035072.
  27. Bracegirdle, T. J., W. M. Connelley, and J. Turner. 2008. Antarctic climate change over the twenty first century. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D03103, doi:10.1029/2007JD008933.
  28. Hansen, J., M. Sato, P. Kharecha, D. Beerling, R. Berner, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. Pagani, M. Raymo, D. Royer, and J.C. Zachos. 2008. Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim? The Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2: 217–231.
  29. Ramanathan, V., and Y. Feng. 2008. On avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system: formidable challenges ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105: 14245–14250.
  30. Department of the Interior, National Fish and Wildlife Service. 1973. Endangered Species Act of 1973, Washington, DC: Department of the Interior.. (accessed August 7, 2009). 07/27/10 Link no longer available.


Penguins Marching into the Classroom

A variety of educational activities for K-12, brought to you by Penguin Science.

PBS Educational Resources

These activities are related to the broadcaster’s nature documentary about penguins but, with a few modifications, they can stand alone as resources for the middle – high school classroom:
- »
- »

Education for Conservation

U.S. Fish and Wildlife dedicates a website to students and educators, including maps, video, and the National Conservation Training Center’s Conservation Library, which provides easy access to curriculum-related materials, historic conservation texts, electronic resources and state-of-the-art delivery services. Many of the resources are free.

KidZone Penguins

Activities, facts, and photos for the early grades.

Penguin Printouts and Puzzles

Activities for the early grades.